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|friends = [[Tom Cat|Tom]] (sometimes), [[Lightning Cat|Lightning]] (formerly)
 
|friends = [[Tom Cat|Tom]] (sometimes), [[Lightning Cat|Lightning]] (formerly)
 
|enemies = [[Jerry Mouse|Jerry]], [[Tom Cat|Tom]] (sometimes), [[Butch]] (sometimes), [[Lightning Cat|Lightning]] (in the end), [[Topsy Cat|Topsy]] (in the end)
 
|enemies = [[Jerry Mouse|Jerry]], [[Tom Cat|Tom]] (sometimes), [[Butch]] (sometimes), [[Lightning Cat|Lightning]] (in the end), [[Topsy Cat|Topsy]] (in the end)
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|family = [[Tom Cat]] (pet)
 
|relatives = Aunt Harriet (mentioned, not heard or seen in The Million Dollar Cat).
 
|relatives = Aunt Harriet (mentioned, not heard or seen in The Million Dollar Cat).
 
|skin colour = Brown
 
|skin colour = Brown
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'''Mammy Two Shoes''' (also known as '''Mammy''', '''Mammy Two-Shoes''', or '''Dinah''' in the 1940s Tom and Jerry comics) is a recurring character who appeared in 19 of MGM's ''[[Tom and Jerry]]'' cartoons. She is a heavy-set, middle-aged African-American woman who often has to deal with the mayhem generated by the lead characters, but whether she is the owner of the home or merely the house-keeper is never really made clear. She is based on the "Mammy" archetype that was prevalent throughout the U.S. in the 19th and early 20th century.
 
'''Mammy Two Shoes''' (also known as '''Mammy''', '''Mammy Two-Shoes''', or '''Dinah''' in the 1940s Tom and Jerry comics) is a recurring character who appeared in 19 of MGM's ''[[Tom and Jerry]]'' cartoons. She is a heavy-set, middle-aged African-American woman who often has to deal with the mayhem generated by the lead characters, but whether she is the owner of the home or merely the house-keeper is never really made clear. She is based on the "Mammy" archetype that was prevalent throughout the U.S. in the 19th and early 20th century.
   
As a partially-seen character, she was famous for never showing her head and face (although it is briefly visible in [[Saturday Evening Puss]] and [[Part Time Pal]]). Mammy's appearances have often been edited out, dubbed, or re-animated as a slim white woman in later television showings, since her character is a mammy archetype now often regarded as racist. Her character was greatly inspired by Oscar-winning African-American actress and singer Hattie McDaniel, best known for playing "Mammy" in MGM and David O. Selznick's 1939 film.
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As a partially-seen character, she was famous for never showing her head and face (although it is briefly visible in [[Saturday Evening Puss]] and [[Part Time Pal]]). Mammy's appearances have often been edited out, dubbed, or re-animated as a slim white woman in television broadcasts, since her character is a mammy archetype now often regarded as racist.
  +
  +
== Bio ==
  +
  +
== Personality ==
   
 
==Appearance==
 
==Appearance==
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Mammy first appeared in [[Puss Gets the Boot]], the first Tom and Jerry cartoon (except Tom was called "Jasper"). She always referred to Tom as his given name Thomas and almost always used "is" in conjunction with a pronoun ("is you" and "I is"). The character went on to make many appearances through 1952's [[Push-Button Kitty]]. William Hanna and Joseph Barbera initially portrayed Mammy as the maid of the house, with the real owners unknown to the viewers. Later, Hanna and Barbera seemed to suggest, through dialogue and occasional behavior, that the house was Mammy's own.
 
Mammy first appeared in [[Puss Gets the Boot]], the first Tom and Jerry cartoon (except Tom was called "Jasper"). She always referred to Tom as his given name Thomas and almost always used "is" in conjunction with a pronoun ("is you" and "I is"). The character went on to make many appearances through 1952's [[Push-Button Kitty]]. William Hanna and Joseph Barbera initially portrayed Mammy as the maid of the house, with the real owners unknown to the viewers. Later, Hanna and Barbera seemed to suggest, through dialogue and occasional behavior, that the house was Mammy's own.
   
Mammy was originally voiced by well-known African-American voice actress Lillian Randolph. When [[Turner Entertainment]] acquired ''Tom and Jerry'' from MGM, Thea Vidale was hired to redub the shorts with Mammy in a way that removed the character's use of a potentially offensive dialect. These versions of the cartoons are aired to this day on Turner's Cartoon Network-related cable channels, and have turned up on DVD as well. The Region 2 ''Complete Collectors Edition'' DVD box set has Vidale's voice on the first DVD and Randolph in a number of the episodes after that (such as ''A Mouse in the House'' and ''Mouse Cleaning'').
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==Censorship, discontinuation, and callbacks==
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[[File:Drgterr4.jpg|thumb|Mammy Two Shoes attacking Tom.]]
==Replacement characters for Mammy==
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Director [[Gene Deitch]] stated that the "retiring" of Mammy's character was one of the changes that he felt he needed to make for the 13 shorts produced by [[Rembrandt Films]].<ref>[https://cartoonresearch.com/index.php/tom-jerry-the-gene-deitch-collection/ "Tom & Jerry – The Gene Deitch Collection" (Paragraph 7) - Gene Deitch (cartoonresearch.com)]</ref>
[[File:Drgterr4.jpg|thumb|The American version of Mammy Two Shoes.]]
 
[[MGM Animation/Visual Arts]] created characters intended to be used in place of Mammy when ''Tom & Jerry'' aired on television in the 1960s. These versions used rotoscoping techniques to replace Mammy on-screen with a thin white woman, and the voice on the soundtracks was replaced by an Irish-accented voice performed by white actress June Foray.
 
   
From 1954's ''[[Pet Peeve]]'', the owners of the animals' house were a white, middle-class couple named [[George and Joan]]. Starting with 1955's ''[[The Flying Sorceress]]'', the audience was able to see these owners' heads.
+
[[MGM Animation/Visual Arts]], under the supervision of [[Chuck Jones]], created replacement characters for Mammy in the ''Tom and Jerry'' cartoons featuring her for television. These versions used rotoscoping techniques to replace Mammy on-screen with either a stocky white woman (in most shorts) or a thin white woman (in ''Saturday Evening Puss''); Randolph's voice on the soundtracks was replaced by an Irish-accented (or generic young adult in ''Puss'') voice performed by June Foray.<ref>[http://mammytwoshoes.tripod.com/history.html A History of Mammy Twoshoes]</ref>
   
In 1961, when [[Rembrandt Films]] began producing ''Tom and Jerry'' shorts, the owner of the house became a corpulent white man. The character was designed by [[Gene Deitch]], who recycled the design from his Terrytoons character Clint Clobber. This new owner, whose face would turn bright red, and often derived great glee in doing so, was more graphically brutal in punishing Tom's mistakes as compared to Mammy Two Shoes, such as beating and thrashing Tom repeatedly, searing his face with a grill and forcing Tom to drink an entire carbonated beverage. "Clobber" (for want of a better name) was introduced in ''[[Down and Outing]]'' as a fisherman who owned Tom as well as their house. "Clobber" later appeared in ''[[High Steaks]]'' as a chef, and ''[[Sorry Safari]]'' as a hunter before being consequently dropped out of the picture due to his controversial role.
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Three years after [[Turner Entertainment]] acquired ''Tom & Jerry'' from MGM, the cartoons featuring Mammy were re-recorded to remove Mammy Two Shoes' use of potentially offensive dialect. Lillian Randolph's voice was dubbed over by Thea Vidale. The re-recorded versions of the cartoons would air on Turner's [[Cartoon Network]]-related cable channels, and have at times turned up on DVD. However, some European TV showings of these cartoons, especially the UK, as well as the US DVD release of ''[[Tom and Jerry Spotlight Collection]]'', ''[[Warner Bros. Home Entertainment Academy Awards Animation Collection]]'', and ''[[Tom and Jerry: The Deluxe Anniversary Collection]]'' and the US DVD and Blu-ray releases of ''[[Tom and Jerry Golden Collection]]'', retain Randolph's original voice. The Region 2 ''Complete Collectors Edition'' DVD boxset has Vidale's voice on the first DVD and Randolph in a number of the episodes after that (such as ''[[A Mouse in the House]]'' and ''[[Mouse Cleaning]]'').
   
After his departure, Tom's owner varied, with a housewife similar to the re-edited Mammy appearing in the later Deitch short ''[[Buddies Thicker Than Water]]'' and the direct-to-DVD film ''[[Tom and Jerry: The Fast and the Furry]]''.
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A white woman named "[[Mrs. Two Shoes]]" appeared in some episodes of ''[[Tom and Jerry Tales]]''. She had most aspects of Mammy Two Shoes' personality, a similar look, and a similar name.
   
In ''[[Tom and Jerry Tales]]'', a character with a similar name and appearance ([[Mrs. Two Shoes]]) was introduced.
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== Appearances==
 
==Appearances==
 
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
|-
 
|-
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A0UynrR.jpg
 
A0UynrR.jpg
 
Push-Button Kitty - Tom relaxing.PNG
 
Push-Button Kitty - Tom relaxing.PNG
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Mammy hits Tom.png|Mammy Two-Shoes' s face partially seen in [[Part Time Pal]]
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Mammy.jpg|Mammy Two-Shoes' face briefly shown in [[Saturday Evening Puss]]
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
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== Trivia ==
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* In [[Saturday Evening Puss]], When Mammy Too Shoes dashes home to punish Tom and his Friends for throwing a party, her face is briefly shown once. This is the only instance her face is seen.
   
 
==References==
 
==References==
 
<references/>
 
<references/>
 
 
[[Category:Characters]]
 
[[Category:Characters]]
 
[[Category:Humans]]
 
[[Category:Humans]]
[[Category:Heroes]]
 
 
[[Category:Females]]
 
[[Category:Females]]
 
[[Category:Tom and Jerry Characters]]
 
[[Category:Tom and Jerry Characters]]
 
[[Category:Minor characters]]
 
[[Category:Minor characters]]
 
[[Category:Babysitters]]
 
[[Category:Babysitters]]
[[Category:Villains]]
 
[[Category:Reformed Villains]]
 
[[Category:Major villains]]
 
 
[[Category:Controversy]]
 
[[Category:Controversy]]
 
[[Category:Supporting Characters]]
 
[[Category:Supporting Characters]]
 
[[Category:Recurring characters]]
 
[[Category:Recurring characters]]
 
[[Category:MGM Characters]]
 
[[Category:MGM Characters]]
[[Category:Neutral Characters]]
 

Revision as of 15:49, March 24, 2020

Mammy Two Shoes (also known as Mammy, Mammy Two-Shoes, or Dinah in the 1940s Tom and Jerry comics) is a recurring character who appeared in 19 of MGM's Tom and Jerry cartoons. She is a heavy-set, middle-aged African-American woman who often has to deal with the mayhem generated by the lead characters, but whether she is the owner of the home or merely the house-keeper is never really made clear. She is based on the "Mammy" archetype that was prevalent throughout the U.S. in the 19th and early 20th century.

As a partially-seen character, she was famous for never showing her head and face (although it is briefly visible in Saturday Evening Puss and Part Time Pal). Mammy's appearances have often been edited out, dubbed, or re-animated as a slim white woman in television broadcasts, since her character is a mammy archetype now often regarded as racist.

Bio

Personality

Appearance

With dark brown skin (later changed to an ivory-colored skin tone) she is distinguished by her usual, sleeveless dress with frills in the shoulders, a white apron with frills in the trim, old, yellow socks (often seen with some kind of suspender holding it up), and red slippers. The color of her attire often changes, but the pieces remain virtually the same. These colors are yellow, orange, green, blue, and red. She is usually seen holding a broom.

She is of mid-stature with dark skin, slightly rotund with a large bust and thick hands.

Theatrical Tom and Jerry cartoons

PDVD 002-1-

Mammy Two Shoes, in a scene from Saturday Evening Puss.

Mammy first appeared in Puss Gets the Boot, the first Tom and Jerry cartoon (except Tom was called "Jasper"). She always referred to Tom as his given name Thomas and almost always used "is" in conjunction with a pronoun ("is you" and "I is"). The character went on to make many appearances through 1952's Push-Button Kitty. William Hanna and Joseph Barbera initially portrayed Mammy as the maid of the house, with the real owners unknown to the viewers. Later, Hanna and Barbera seemed to suggest, through dialogue and occasional behavior, that the house was Mammy's own.

Censorship, discontinuation, and callbacks

Drgterr4

Mammy Two Shoes attacking Tom.

Director Gene Deitch stated that the "retiring" of Mammy's character was one of the changes that he felt he needed to make for the 13 shorts produced by Rembrandt Films.[1]

MGM Animation/Visual Arts, under the supervision of Chuck Jones, created replacement characters for Mammy in the Tom and Jerry cartoons featuring her for television. These versions used rotoscoping techniques to replace Mammy on-screen with either a stocky white woman (in most shorts) or a thin white woman (in Saturday Evening Puss); Randolph's voice on the soundtracks was replaced by an Irish-accented (or generic young adult in Puss) voice performed by June Foray.[2]

Three years after Turner Entertainment acquired Tom & Jerry from MGM, the cartoons featuring Mammy were re-recorded to remove Mammy Two Shoes' use of potentially offensive dialect. Lillian Randolph's voice was dubbed over by Thea Vidale. The re-recorded versions of the cartoons would air on Turner's Cartoon Network-related cable channels, and have at times turned up on DVD. However, some European TV showings of these cartoons, especially the UK, as well as the US DVD release of Tom and Jerry Spotlight Collection, Warner Bros. Home Entertainment Academy Awards Animation Collection, and Tom and Jerry: The Deluxe Anniversary Collection and the US DVD and Blu-ray releases of Tom and Jerry Golden Collection, retain Randolph's original voice. The Region 2 Complete Collectors Edition DVD boxset has Vidale's voice on the first DVD and Randolph in a number of the episodes after that (such as A Mouse in the House and Mouse Cleaning).

A white woman named "Mrs. Two Shoes" appeared in some episodes of Tom and Jerry Tales. She had most aspects of Mammy Two Shoes' personality, a similar look, and a similar name.

 Appearances

No. Title Released
1 Puss Gets the Boot February 10, 1940
2 The Midnight Snack July 19, 1941
4 Fraidy Cat January 17, 1942
5 Dog Trouble April 18, 1942
6 Puss N' Toots May 30, 1942
10 The Lonesome Mouse May 22, 1943
18 The Mouse Comes to Dinner May 5, 1945
28 Part Time Pal March 15, 1947
32 A Mouse in the House August 30, 1947
36 Old Rockin' Chair Tom September 18, 1948
38 Mouse Cleaning December 11, 1948
39 Polka-Dot Puss February 26, 1949
40 The Little Orphan April 30, 1949
48 Saturday Evening Puss January 14, 1950
53 The Framed Cat October 21, 1950
58 Sleepy-Time Tom May 26, 1951
61 Nit-Witty Kitty October 6, 1951
67 Triplet Trouble April 19, 1952
70 Push-Button Kitty September 6, 1952[3]

Major appearances

  • The Lonesome Mouse - She's tricked by Tom's and Jerry's truce.
  • Part Time Pal - She is tormented by a drunk Tom.
  • Old Rockin' Chair Tom - Mammy's longest onscreen appearance. She takes a cat named Lightning.
  • Sleepy-Time Tom - She keeps an eye on Tom if he's sleeping on the job.
  • Push-Button Kitty - She orders a robocat called Mechano.

Gags

  • Been constantly afraid of Jerry (or mice in general) and jumping to the nearest high spot such as a chair or the balcony.
  • Pulling up the skirt, often pulling up, comically, many layers of skirts with distinct patterns.
  • Easily losing her temper with Tom's shenanigans.

Gallery

Trivia

  • In Saturday Evening Puss, When Mammy Too Shoes dashes home to punish Tom and his Friends for throwing a party, her face is briefly shown once. This is the only instance her face is seen.

References

  1. "Tom & Jerry – The Gene Deitch Collection" (Paragraph 7) - Gene Deitch (cartoonresearch.com)
  2. A History of Mammy Twoshoes
  3. Shorts Chart - BoxOffice (1952)
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